**Update: This post was updated to show the difference between Currying and Partial Functions.**

**Currying** is a concept in Functional Programming that’s enabled by Higher-order functions. It’s best described as: the ability to take a function that accepts n parameters and turns it into a composition of `n`

functions each of them take 1 parameter. Check this function *f* which takes 3 params *x*,*y*,*z*

`f(x,y,z) = 4*x+3*y+2*z`

Currying means that we can rewrite the function as a composition of 3 functions(a function for each param):

`f(x)(y)(z) = 2*z+(3*y+(4*x))`

The direct use of this is what is called **Partial Function** where if you have a function that accepts n parameters then you can generate from it one of more functions with some parameter values already filled in. Ruby 1.9 comes with support for currying concept(through the Proc#curry method) and this blog post is explaining how you can use it effectively.

I’m going to walk you through a simple example to explain the concept, however i need to mention few things:

1- The main example is taken from the free Scala By Example book(First-Class Functions chapter), however i have replaced recursion calls by simple `upto`

iterators.

2- In Ruby 1.9 you can use block.(*args) just like you use `block.call(*args)`

or `block[*args]`

in Ruby 1.8, so i’ll stick to `block.(*)`

notation.

3- I could have used the `inject`

method, but i preferred readability to concise code.

Let’s start the simple tutorial by adding three methods:

1- A method to sum all integers between two given numbers `a`

and `b`

.

2- A method to sum the squares of all integers between two given numbers `a`

and `b`

.

3- A method to to sum the powers `2^n`

of all integers `n`

between two given numbers `a`

and `b`

.

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################################### # Normal definitions ################################### sum_ints = lambda do |a,b| s = 0 ; a.upto(b){|n| s += n } ; s end sum_of_squares = lambda do |a,b| s = 0 ; a.upto(b){|n| s += n**2 } ;s end sum_of_powers_of_2 = lambda do |a,b| s = 0 ; a.upto(b){|n| s += 2**n } ; s end puts sum_ints.(1,5) #=> 15 puts sum_of_squares.(1,5) #=> 55 puts sum_of_powers_of_2.(1,5) #=> 62 |

Cool, however if you focus on the 3 methods, you will notice that these methods are all instances of a pattern Σf(n) for a range of values a -> b. We can factor out the common pattern by defining a method sum:

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############################################ # Some refactoring to make some abstraction # Passing the sum mechanism itself ############################################ sum = lambda do |f,a,b| s = 0 ; a.upto(b){|n| s += f.(n) } ; s end puts sum.(lambda{|x| x},1,5) #=> 15 puts sum.(lambda{|x| x**2},1,5) #=> 55 puts sum.(lambda{|x| 2**x},1,5) #=> 62 |

Ok, but what about having the formal definitions for the 3 methods? How can we have those definitions out of the `sum`

method? Well that’s the use of currying and partial functions, in our case we just need to pass the first param to the `sum`

method to specify what type of sum is it:

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################################### # More refactoring using currying # Currying was added to Ruby 1.9 # Via Proc#curry ################################### # generate the currying currying = sum.curry # Generate the partial functions sum_ints = currying.(lambda{|x| x}) sum_of_squares = currying.(lambda{|x| x**2}) sum_of_powers_of_2 = currying.(lambda{|x| 2**x}) puts sum_ints.(1,5) #=> 15 puts sum_of_squares.(1,5) #=> 55 puts sum_of_powers_of_2.(1,5) #=> 62 |

That’s it! I hope I could clarify the use of currying, if not just add your comment here ðŸ˜‰